- Why appendicitis in the body, from which side it is located
- Common signs and symptoms of appendicitis
- Forms and types of inflammation of the appendage of the cecum
- What diseases are similar symptoms with appendicitis
- Causes of suppuration and prevention measures
Inflammation appendix, appendage of the cecum, happens once a year on average for five for every 1000 people. As a rule, after diagnosis of the first signs of appendicitis, appendectomy , surgical removal of the appendix, especially in the case of an acute form, is performed. At this stage it is easier to cope with inflammation, avoid complications. Otherwise, peritonitis , inflammation of the peritoneum can develop. A serious condition with peritonitis requires immediate medical attention, otherwise the consequences of its untimely rendering may be deplorable.
Why appendicitis in the body, from which side it is located
It is believed that the appendage of the caecum initially served as a digestive function. But in the course of evolution he acquired his own specialization, therefore it is not entirely correct to regard him as a rudimentary organ.
At one time in the US, the practice was introduced to cut out the process of the cecum of all babies without exception, so that later on, he would not have to fear various troubles. Very soon it turned out that after the appendix was removed, infants began to less easily absorb mother’s milk. From the surgical correction of the “mistakes of nature” had to be abandoned.
Some scientists are convinced that one of the functions of the appendage is to help the body restore the population of beneficial microflora in the intestine, if due to certain diseases it almost completely died.
Other recent studies have established that the appendage contains so-called lymphoid cells, similar to those located in the tonsils. Their number is small, but it has been suggested that the rudimentary organ performs, or is potentially capable of performing, a protective function as part of the body’s immune system.
It is assumed that the appendix produces hormones involved in the processes of intestinal peristalsis.
It is also believed that the appendage of the cecum is the endocrine gland during fetal development. After completing the formation of “real” glands, this function fades.
The appendix of the caecum in the majority is on the right side. With rare exception, it is located in the lower abdomen, slightly above the groin.
Common signs and symptoms of appendicitis
The first signs are indistinct, quite often the patient complains of pains in the entire abdomen or near the navel. Then pain sensations are concentrated to the right, from which side appendicitis is located. In some cases, immediately begins to hurt at the bottom of the right side.
It can hurt several days or hours. When trying to describe the place of localization of discomforting sensations, one wants to make a circular movement in the middle of the abdomen.
Discomfort sensations are quite tolerable, although with the development of the inflammatory process they intensify. With certain types of appendicitis, pain can subside, this is due to death in the process of cells.
Over time, the inflammation of the epididymis increases and spreads to its outer shell, and then to the peritoneum, a thin film from inside the abdomen. With inflammation of the peritoneum, the pain becomes localized in a specific place.
You do not feel like it, the right side begins to hurt more when you change the position of the body, walking, during coughing and sneezing. It is most comfortable to lie on the left side.
The inflammatory process often causes an increase in temperature to 37-38C, although this does not always happen. Therefore, if there are various symptoms of appendicitis, but the temperature does not increase, this does not mean lack of acute form.
When the onset of pain in the abdomen, vomiting can occur due to intestinal obstruction. Can often be wanted in the toilet, the stool becomes liquid.Often the tongue becomes dry, covered.
To determine appendicitis, you can conduct a simple diagnosis: slightly press on the stomach to the right, while there should not be felt abdominal wall tension. If it is firm, it is a sign of inflammation of the appendage. Relaxation of pressure should occur without discomfort and pain.
In this way it is not difficult to check for inflammation in young children. If, during sleep, gently press on the location of the appendix, the child should not wake up, his stomach remains soft. In the case of signs of appendicitis, the child starts to grab the hand in his sleep, pulls it away from the sore spot, the abdominal wall becomes tense at the same time.
If the appendage is ruptured and the infection appears in the peritoneum, causing its inflammation, pain in appendicitis spreads to the entire abdomen. The condition deteriorates considerably, emergency medical care is required.
Despite a number of characteristic symptoms of appendicitis inflammation, its diagnosis should be performed by a specialist, since this is not always a trivial task even with medical education.
Independently diagnose in the case of appendicitis, especially in the case of acute form, prescribe this or that treatment is life threatening.
Forms and types of inflammation of the appendage of the cecum
The most common acute form . Chronic happens rarely and, as a rule, after a previously transferred acute form, which is of several varieties. Classification of appendicitis is given below.
In this type of acute form, also called catarrhal , the symptoms of irritation of the peritoneum are weak or absent, so it is difficult to diagnose. Can hurt at the top of the abdomen.
Often, the patient’s condition is monitored, additional studies are performed:
- increasing the number of leukocytes may indicate the presence of appendicitis.
- X-ray study helps identify a fossilized piece of feces that has clogged the exit of the epididymis, which in a number of cases causes inflammation.
- with ultrasound half of the patients can see the appendage, determine the change in its size. But if the appendix can not be seen, this does not mean the absence of its inflammation.
The most accurate way to diagnose appendicitis is laparoscopy . A hole is made in the abdominal wall, where an optical fiber tube is inserted. Laparoscopy allows you to see the inflamed appendage, other organs of the abdominal cavity and pelvis.
If nothing is done, on the walls and in the cavity of the appendage pus is formed, the pain “descends” below.
Pain sensations are more pronounced and felt on the lower right, the temperature rises. The pulse is increased, the tongue becomes dry and covered. At a pressure the pain in a place of an appendix is felt, the musculature of an abdominal wall is strained.
The size of the appendage increases, a considerable amount of pus accumulates inside, ulcers appear on its walls, puffiness.
This species poses a serious health hazard, because after a few hours the pus-filled appendix may burst.
In the early stages, this variety is similar to a simple one. In the abdominal cavity, due to the presence of holes in the appendage, there is stool stones, as well as foul-smelling contents that cause local peritonitis. There are toxins in the blood, which makes the state of health worse even more.
Nauseated, tongue dry, coated, pressure decreases, the heart begins to “part”. The abdomen is tense and does not participate in breathing.
Because of poisoning with toxins, the body does not always manage to react correctly to the spread of peritonitis to the entire abdomen. Although the condition may even improve, as the pain becomes tolerable.
This type of acute form is the most dangerous, it is similar to phlegmonous, but in this case the general signs of deterioration are more pronounced.
Appendicitis cells die, resulting in a lack of pain or significant weakening.
There are signs of severe intoxication, the face becomes pale, the condition worsens, the heart begins to beat at a frequency of 100 beats per minute, can shiver. The abdomen is slightly tense, it can swell.
As a rule, a simple variety of appendicitis develops within 6-12 hours from the moment of detection of the first signs, phlegmonous 12-24 hours, gangrenous 24-48 hours, after which there is perforation , i.e. the outflow of contents into the abdominal cavity, which, in the absence of timely medical care, often causes death.
What diseases are similar to those with appendicitis
Often, similar signs of worsening are observed with exacerbation of peptic ulcer . The pain for a long time does not go down to the right and down, so when diagnosing it is necessary to take into account the possibility and the more so the presence of peptic ulcer.
Pain on the right can occur in women with right ovarian cyst , in case of inflammation in the pelvic organs, some gynecological diseases.
Signs of acute appendicitis can be observed with pancreatitis , although the nature of the pain in this case is shrouded.
Attack cholecystitis , inflammation of the gallbladder, can also be confused with the symptoms of inflammation of the appendage, since the stomach on the right is hardened. To exclude the wrong diagnosis, the doctor can put the ice on the right side of the abdomen. But alone with acute appendicitis, it is better not to cool it and not to warm up, it is better to wait for the doctor to come.
With inflammation of the appendix, you can often confuse renal colic , observed in the case of diseases of the urinary tract.
At the outset, signs of appendicitis are easily confused, especially to the layman, with an infectious disease , for example, a toxicoinfection.
Causes of suppuration and prevention measures
The reason for an attack of appendicitis is the overlap due to various reasons for the opening between the appendage and the cecum.
- These can be clots of slime, hardened feces, which is facilitated by frequent constipation, intestinal parasites, foreign or not completely digested food particles – seeds, seeds, seeds, they are often found in remote processes, the prevalence of meat in the daily diet.
- It is supposed that the outgrowth can be caused from inside by some causes of lymphoid tissue, eventually clogging the hole. Sometimes the properties of the tissue change, which causes a rupture of the epididymis, which causes the infection to enter the abdominal cavity and cause an attack.
- Immunity weakening, complicated by diseases of the upper respiratory tract, frequent colds, caries can cause infection through the blood in the appendix, which leads to the onset of inflammation.
- Stress and associated vasospasm of the appendage, abdominal trauma can cause a lack of blood circulation, stagnation of the contents, which is also fraught with appendicitis.